Without high-end construction materials , green building concept cannot be successful. Therefore, materials are carefully selected considering the geographic location, environmental condition of the particular area, where the construction has to be commenced. If, the site is under earthquake seisemic zone; then some specific kinds of building materials and technologies are used for the construction purpose. On the other hand, if the construction site has high rate of heavy rain, cyclone, or flood; then materials and technology are selected accordingly.
With serious approach to come out of all such concerns, modern construction industry has adopted high quality and technologically advanced construction materials. Modern construction materials are efficient to deal with all these problems as compared to traditional materials and construction methods. After extensive research and in-depth study on the safety of environment, and inhabitants’ life from natural disasters; construction materials and technology experts have introduced a number of high-end building materials and building technologies.
Advantages of Modern Construction Materials & Technologies:
In the modern construction sector, a number of highly reliable materials and construction technologies are being used. Some of them include Stabilized Mud Blocks, Fine Concrete Blocks, Steam Cured Blocks, Filler Slab Roofs, Lime Pozzolana Cements, Composite Beam & Panel Roofs, Unreinforced Masonry vaults, Containment Reinforcement Walls, and many others. These materials are the blend of various natural substances that make them highly durable, sustainable for a longer period of time, environment-friendly, and the best suitable to all modern construction needs. They are intelligently used taking into account various specific construction needs.
Stabilized Mud Blocks:
These dense solid blocks, are compacted with a blend of soil, sand, stabilizer (cement/lime), and water. The Stabilized Mud Blocks (SMB) are used for wall construction after 28 days curing. These are widely used for constructing load bearing masonry.
Fine Concrete Blocks:
Fine Concrete Blocks are made-up with the blend of fly ash, polished stone waste, etc. These are mixed with either sand or stone quarry dust along with cement and water. Then, the mixture is compacted into blocks using a manual or mechanized machine. Durability is the main strength of such blocks.
Steam Cured Blocks:
These blocks are the mixture of like industrial waste products like fly ash or expansive soils like black cotton soil. And then, sand can compacted into a high-density block. These are best suitable for constructing 3–4 storey load-bearing buildings.
Filler Slab Roofs:
These roofs are solid reinforced concrete slabs with partial replacement of the concrete in the tension zone by a filler material. The filler material can be cheaper and lighter.
Lime Pozzolana Cements:
This kind of cement is manufactured by mixing calcium hydroxide (lime) and pozzolana in the ratio of 1 : 1.5 or 1 : 2. Various types of pozzolonas such as burnt clay pozzolona, rice husk ash, better quality fly ash or blend of pozzolonas can also be used. The major strengths of this cement include improved high-temp durability, resistance to corrosion, resistance to sulfate attack, etc.
Composite Beam & Panel Roofs:
This roofing system includes partially precast or cast-in-situ ribs/beams to cover a certain space with panels. Various options are available for Composite Beam & Panel Roofs. For beams, you can use precast reinforced concrete, rolled steel sections, trussed steel members, timber, steel, concrete composite, etc. And precast concrete, reinforced brickwork, stone slabs, hollow hourdi tile, reinforced SMB panel, etc. can be used as panels.
Unreinforced Masonry vaults:
A metal formwork of about 1 m width in the vault shape can be repetitively used to manufacture such vaults. In India, vaults and dome construction using unreinforced masonry has been used for than six centuries. It has many advantages like aesthetics, cost effectiveness, durability, and saving energy.
Natural calamities like earthquakes have always been major concerns for the humanity. To avoid minimal damage and loss of life due to earthquake, Containment Reinforcement technique took place in the construction sector. Vertical reinforcement to masonry wall is called Containment Reinforcement.
In this method, thin reinforcing bars are wrapped in vertical direction on both the face of the wall. And they are held together by ties given in the bed joints. Containment reinforcement (provided at 1 m intervals along the length of the wall and at door and window jambs) is anchored to RC bands at roof and plinth level. Using SMB wall and containment reinforcement, a number of buildings were built in Gujarat after the earthquake in Bhuj.